Electromigration is the gradual displacement of the atoms of the device under the influence of high current density. This gradual displacement of atoms may result in formation of voids (opens) or hillocks (shorts) in the device which may render the functionality of the chip useless. Electromigration is impacted by various physical parameters like the wire length, wire width, temperature and the physical layout. Increasing wire width directly impacts the current density of the wire and reduces the possibility of electromigration. Increasing temperature has been proved to result in increasing the possibility of formation of voids.

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